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Which amplifier class is the best?

How Class D amplifier technology differs from Class A and AB

What is amplifier class? The way an amplifier combines power and signal defines its Class. Which class is best depends on your needs:

  • Class A design is the least efficient but has the highest sound fidelity.
  • Class B design is a little more efficient, but full of distortion.
  • Class AB design offers power efficiency and good sound.
  • Class D design has the highest efficiency but isn't quite as high-fidelity.

Amplifier basics

Typically, a car amplifier works by taking the 12-volt DC power coming into the amp, turning it into AC, and increasing the voltage via a transformer. Then it combines that high-voltage power with the audio signal coming from the stereo to create a high-voltage, high-current output version of that weak input signal.

Amplifier basics diagram.

Amplifier Class is the system for combining power and signal. Amp class differs from amp to amp with efficiency and sound fidelity dependent on which design gets used. In all designs, banks of output transistors, each a little amp by itself, add their collective power together to provide the amplifier's final output.

The inside of a Rockford Fosgate T500-1bdCP amplifier

The inside of a Rockford Fosgate T500-1bdCP showing the transformer (the coil of red and green wires) and output transistors (black rectangles glued to the heatsink with white thermal paste).

Heat is the enemy

Amplifiers always put out less power than they consume. An amplifier's efficiency is the ratio of what it puts out divided by what it draws from the electrical system. No amp is 100% efficient, putting out exactly what it draws, nor can an amp put out more power than it draws. The power that doesn't make it to the output terminals is wasted energy that turns into heat. Too much heat will destroy the amplifier's output signal and internal components.

The different amplifier classes produce different amounts of heat. See each class description below. 

Class A amplifier setup diagram.

Class A amplifiers — the high-fidelity heat source

A Class A amplifier's output transistors run with "constant bias," meaning they always run at full power whether there's an input signal or not. When there's no signal, the transistors' power turns into heat. When there is a signal, the power goes out the speaker terminals. Also, each Class A output transistor amplifies both the negative voltage and the positive voltage parts of the signal's AC waveform, adding to the workload and generating more heat. Class A amps usually operate around a 25% efficiency level. That means that 75% of their power is turned into heat.

Highest fidelity amplifier Class

Because each output stage transistor is always on, there's no turn-on, turn-off, warming, or cooling cycles affecting the signal flow. In fact, the transistors perform in their most linear fashion, distortion-free, under this condition. And because there're no switching going on, there's no induced high-frequency interference either. Pure Class A amplifiers are rare, expensive, and never used in car audio.

Class B amplifier setup diagram.

Class B amps — the two transistor solution

Class B amplifiers lighten the workload of each output stage by replacing the single transistor there with two transistors set up in what is called a "push-pull" arrangement. One transistor amplifies the negative voltage parts of the signal's AC waveform and the other takes care of the positive voltage, and then the two are combined into a unified output. Each transistor is on half the time and off the other half.

Efficient with low fidelity

Class B amplifiers are much more efficient than Class A amps — 50% or so — but produce distortion as the two transistors switch on and off. This "crossover distortion" is so bad that very few if any manufacturers offer or produce an amplifier of pure Class B design.

Class AB amplifier setup diagram.

Class AB amplifiers — higher fidelity and efficiency

The push-pull pair of output transistors in a Class AB amp are each on more than half the time, and they don't turn on and off suddenly either. This gives the amp the characteristics of a Class A amp when the signal's at low power and conducting through both transistors, and a Class B amp when the power is high. For each amp, there's an optimum bias current, the amount of time when both transistors are passing current, that minimizes the crossover distortion of Class B design.

Class AB amps are everywhere

The result of this design is that Class AB amplifies have much higher efficiency than Class A amps, up to about 60%, and much less distortion than Class B amps. Most home theater and stereo amplifiers are Class AB.

Until recently, using an AB amp was the only practical choice for attaining high-fidelity, full-range amplification, but now Class D amps are being built that are just as accurate. (Class A is still the winner for accuracy, though.)

Class D amplifier setup diagram.

Class D amplifiers — popular kings of efficiency

Class D amplifiers operate in a unique fashion. Onboard circuitry creates very high-frequency (often over 100K Hz) pulses of DC current. The width of each pulse is then modified by the input signal — the wider the pulse, the louder the signal. This is called "pulse width modulation" or PWM. These DC pulses are run through the amplifying output transistors creating the high-power output.  Because they are getting DC pulses, not analog signals, the transistors, also called MOSFETs, are either on full power or off with no power. This is the most efficient way of running these transistors — as much as 90% efficient in some cases.

D does not stand for digital

Although making a signal by rapidly switching transistors on and off resembles digital processing that uses zeros and ones, Class D amplifiers are not digital devices. Some of them might have digital control circuits, but the amplifier circuits will be strictly analog.

Less-than-highest fidelity

After amplification, a low-pass filter smooths the output signal so the amp won't put out pulses of power but rather, a continuous analog power output. It also removes the interference generated by those high-frequency DC pulses. Because of this, most audiophiles won't use Class D amplifiers in their systems, citing that need for filtering out generated distortion.

Class D has become the go-to choice

On the other hand, in professional PA systems and car audio applications where perfect fidelity isn't as important, Class D amplifiers have become much more popular because they're smaller, lighter, and run cooler than the other Classes of amplifiers with the same amount of power. And these are big advantages when you have to fit an amp in a vehicle or carry one around for gigs.

Other amplifier Classes

There are other technologies used in amplifier output stages, usually enhancements to Class AB design, like Class G, Class H, Rockford Fosgate's Boosted Rail, and Alpine's Dynamic Peak Power. They usually manipulate the amplifier's own power supply in various ways in order to add power on demand more efficiently. Hybrid combinations of all of these technologies can be found in many amplifiers manufactured today.

A class D Alpine amp and a class AB Rockford Fosgate amp

Two 50 watts RMS x 4 amplifiers: the Class D Alpine KTA-450 (left) and a Class AB Rockford Fosgate 50x4 (right). And that's Car A/V web editor Robert FV contributing his expertise.

Confused and looking for an amp? Give us a call.

For today's car amplifiers, you probably won't hear any differences between the different Classes of amplifiers, especially while driving. But it's good to know what those differences are so you can make educated decisions on which amplifier will work best for you.

Check out Crutchfield's entire selection of car amplifiers. Once there, you can narrow your focus by filtering the selection for each amplifier Class. And if you have any questions or want some help, contact our expert advisors via phone, chat, or email

Please share your thoughts below.

  • Lyle from Redondo Beach, CA

    Posted on 8/29/2020

    Thank you for the extremely clear overview of amplifier classes. Class D is interesting. It has been gaining acceptance from the HiFi industry and may be the future since it can deliver lots of power with very good sound at a relatively low cost-at least by audiophile standards. Stay well.

  • Richard kinyanjui from Palm Desert

    Posted on 8/7/2020

    Mr. Pomerantz, you are a really gifted teacher. I've been confused by the classes for a long time but not anymore. You've made the classes distinctions as clear as crystal. I'd pay for my new knowledge if you sent an invoice. Please consider writing a book on electronics 101/for dummies. It will help many including myself. Question. How great are amps with more than two channels? I've seen a 7 amp chanel specified as 7x 80. Does the number of channels affect amps fidelity? How do i know if a home amp is class A, AB, or D? Where is the class specified? Thanks and keep informing. Also please include the button for printing this articles so we can refer to it many times> Thanks and G bless!!

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 8/7/2020

    Richard, The only way to find out the class of an amplifier is to refer to the manufacturer's manuals and sales brochures - and even there, they often don't publish that information.
  • Jeff from san diego

    Posted on 7/8/2020

    hi, you classification of class D as less than high fidelity, really is inaccurate. Perhaps this is true in car amplifiers, but certainly not in home audio. PS Audio, Nad, Devaliet, even McIntosh, has embraced class D version from Hypex and Icepowers top of the line technology.  Class D, especially when coupled with a class A input stage like Nad Master Series M22 are exceptional amplifiers.  You really should correct this distinction, its misinformation and insults the gifted engineers, like Bruno Putzey, who helped to really bring this technology out of simply subwoofer only use from the early 2000's to mainstream full audio high fidelity.

  • Asghar

    Posted on 6/11/2020

    What is class fd ?!!!

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 6/12/2020

    Asghar, I'm not exactly sure, but I think the Class F element adds a dual transistor push-pull circuit to the Class D amp stage. In other words, it's magic that only an electrical engineer will truly understand.
  • eric from Hong Kong

    Posted on 4/13/2020

    Good for me more understanding kinds of amplifier class, it can also apply for home hifi knowledge as well.

  • Ron from Greenbelt, MD

    Posted on 3/6/2020

    Why doesn't Crutchfield specify the amplifier class in the Features & specs of the Details tab?

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 3/9/2020

    Ron, We most certainly do publish an amp's class when known. Perhaps you didn't scroll down far enough on the features tab to see it.
  • Chris Christensen from Grass Valley, CA

    Posted on 3/5/2020

    I am questioning your description of Class D operation. You state that the width of the waveform controls the volume. If this is the case, where is the frequency term encoded?

    Buck Pomerantz from Crutchfield

    on 3/5/2020

    Chris, After modulation, the frequency of the pulses convey the frequency of the output signal.
  • DMac from Burlington, ON

    Posted on 12/9/2019

    The transistors in an AB configuration are not 'mostly on', they are biased to the point that the transition from the positive to the negative device is smooth. At best, they would be considered 'slightly on' except in the case of a high-end amplifier like the ARC Audio SE series of the D'Amore Engineering A Series.

  • Alex Mendez from Whittier, California

    Posted on 11/16/2019

    Informative, thank you.

  • Jay from Nyc

    Posted on 10/27/2019

    Great article. Thank you.